A species scattered over southern Brazil and neighbouring parts of Argentina and Paraguay. It resembles Ipomoea valenzuelensis, but differs in its trifulcate leaves and many-flowered inflorescences. It shares the trifulcate leaf shape with I. langsdorffii, but in that species the leaves are whitish beneath.

DESCRIPTION: Decumbent (rarely climbing) perennial with stems to 4 m long; stems thinly hispid. Leaves shortly petiolate, 5–11 × 1–10, elliptic to obovate in outline, 3-lobed to about halfway, base broadly cuneate, apex obtuse to rounded, strongly mucronate, both surfaces thinly to densely hispid; petioles 0.5–2.5 cm, hispid pilose. Inflorescence of long-pedunculate, compact axillary cymes with up to c. 8 flowers; peduncles 3–12 cm, hispid; bracteoles 5–15 × 0.5–1 mm, linear or lanceolate, acuminate, hispid, margins scarious; secondary peduncles very short or absent, up to 1 cm long; pedicels 3–8 mm, hispid; sepals subequal, 10–16 × 3–4 mm, lanceolate to ovate, finely acuminate, densely hispid-pilose; corolla 5.5–6.5 cm long, funnel-shaped, pink, pilose; limb c. 4 cm diam.; stigma bilobed with globose lobes. Capsules and seeds not seen.

PROTOLOGUE: Lilloa 23: 478 (1950).

COUNTRIES: AMERICA: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay. See records in database

TYPE SPECIMENS:
Holotype (P)

SYNONYMS:
Convolvulus abutiloides Kunth.
Ipomoea abutiloides var. hartwegiana Kuntze
Ipomoea abutiloides var. kunthiana Kuntze
Ipomoea floribunda Moric.
Ipomoea floribunda var. blanchetii Meisn.
Rivea abutiloides (Kunth) Hallier
Turbina abutiloides (Kunth) O’Donell.

An Old World species widely distributed in Asia and normally identified as I. aculeata var. mollissima (Zoll.) Hallier f. ex Ooststr. According to Simoes and colleagues (2011) it inhabits forests from 0 to 700 m a.s.l. I. aculeata var. aculeata is recorded from Bangladesh, Indonesia and Australia. Ipomoea aculeata var. mollisima differs from the type variety in being pubescent or short-tomentose (cf. van Ooststroom, 1953).

DESCRIPTION (from: van Ooststroom, 1953): A glabrous or nearly glabrous twiner, to 10-15 m, occasionally prostrate. Stems woody, grey or pale straw-coloured, often thickened at the nodes, terete to angular, smooth or muricated with small curved hooks. Leaves ovate to orbicular, entire or rarely 3-lobed, 5-14 by 3-10 cm, cordate to truncate at the base, if cordate with a narrow to very broad sinus and rounded basal lobes, acuminate at the apex, with a short or long and narrow, acute or obtusish, mucronulate acumen; lateral nerves 5-6 on either side of the midrib; petiole slender, 2’/2-8(-12) cm, smooth or sometimes with some acute warts. Inflorescences axillary, one- to few-flowered; peduncle short, 2-10(-15) mm. Pedicels terete or angular and thickened towards the calyx, 7-15 mm, in fruit clavate and to 20 mm, recurved in bud, afterwards erect, finally recurved again. Sepals coriaceous, broadly elliptic or orbicular, rarely narrower, broadly rounded to emarginate at the apex and minutely mucronate, 12-18 mm long, in fruit to 20 mm, the inner ones mostly somewhat shorter than the outer and with a narrow scarious margin. Corolla white, greenish outside, opening at night, fragrant, saher-shaped, 14-17 cm long, tube long and narrow. Stamens and style exserted. Filaments inserted at the mouth of the tube, hairy at their base. Ovary glabrous. Capsule enclosed by the sepals, ovoid, mucronate, ca 15 mm long, 2-celled, 4-valved, with more or less lacerate valves. Seeds 4, densely grey-woolly. 6-8 mm long.

PROTOLOGUE: Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 13: 715, 1825

COUNTRIES: ASIA: China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thaliand, Timor-Leste. See records in database

TYPE SPECIMENS:
C.L. Blume, 1234: (L0004179), (L0004180), (L0004181), (L0004183), (U0251799), (L0867389).

SYNONYMS:
Calonyction mollissimum Zoll. (syn. of var. mollissima)
Calonyction mollissimum Zoll. var. glabrior (syn. of var. mollissima)
Ipomoea mollissima (Zoll.) Hallier f. ex Boerl. (syn. of var. mollissima)
Ipomoea mollissima (Zoll.) Hallier f. ex Boerl. var. glabrior (Miq.) Boerl. (syn. of var. mollissima)
Ipomoea yomae Kurz. (syn. of var. mollissima)

An almost-unknown species endemic to Sumatra (Indonesia). Known only from the type collection, which was collected in 1932 in northern Sumatra, apparently growing on the edge of primary jungle at around 1,000 a.s.l. It has not been reported in almost a century so potentially extinct.

DESCRIPTION (from: van Ooststroom, 1952; translated from Latin): A climbing vine, the branches of the petioles and inflorescences are densely hairy, with short hairs beneath. Twigs smooth or blunt towards the tip. Leaves petiolate, petioles 2-6 cm long, base smooth, apex more or less flattened; blades ovate or ovate-oblong, apex obtuse or obtuse, subcordate at the base, 8-13 cm long, 4-8 cm wide, glabrous above, hairy below, especially on the nerves; median nerve above flat or slightly impressed, protruding below, lateral nerves on both sides 5-6 below prominent, smaller nerves indistinct. Smooth fruiting peduncles 8-22 cm long, apex corymbose-branched, primary branches 1-3 cm long, pedicels 3-5 mm long. Bracts not seen. Sepals unequal; outer sepals obtuse, c. 10 mm long, glabrous, margin very curly; inner sepals obtuse, c. 8-9 mm long, flat or slightly concave, hairy on the outside in the middle, glabrous on the broad edges. Fruit ellipsoid, 12-14 mm long, purple-red; seed 1, ellipsoid.

Combination published at: Nat. Plants 5(11): 1136-44 (Suppl.: 26) (2019). Basyonym: Blumea 7(1): 172 (1952).

COUNTRIES: ASIA: Indonesia.See records in database

TYPE SPECIMENS:
W.N. Bangham & C.M. Bangham, 840:
Holotype (K000830743)
Isotype (A00054264)
Isotype (NY00319232)
Isotype (SING0052413)

SYNONYMS:
Argyreia crispa Ooststr.

A twining herb widespread in South America and Africa. In the American continent, it has been recorded from Bolivia in the south up to Colombia and Guyana in the north, and there is one record from Costa Rica. In Africa it is widely distributed across the Sahel region from Senegal and Sierra Leone east to Sudan and Ethiopia. In India it has recently been discovered in Gujerat (see Kattee et al. 2019).

Ipomoea acanthocarpa

DESCRIPTION (from: Wood et al., 2020): Glabrous twining herb. Leaves petiolate, 2–11 × 1.5–8 cm, ovatedeltoid, shortly and often abruptly acuminate or acute, cordate, auricles rounded to acute, often with a distinct tooth and sometimes shallowly bilobed, abaxially with prominent venation; petioles 1–8 cm. Inflorescence of few-flowered, somewhat congested, pedunculate cymes; peduncles 1–6 cm, often stout and somewhat swollen upwards, sometimes warty; bracteoles 2–3 mm, scale-like, caducous; pedicels 2–5 mm, sometimes warty; sepals slightly unequal, 5–10 × 3.5–7 mm, the margins white, outer ovate, acute to mucronate, usually conspicuously warty but otherwise glabrous, inner obtuse and mucronate, smooth, slightly larger; corolla 2–3 cm long, funnel-shaped, pink or white, glabrous, limb c. 2.5 cm diam., the midpetaline bands terminating in mucros. Capsules 9–10 mm, subglobose, rostrate with prominent persistent style, glabrous; seeds 5.5 mm long, grey, long-pilose.

PROTOLOGUE: Beitr. Fl. Aethiop.: 277. 1867

COUNTRIES: AFRICA: Chad, Ethiopia, Senegal, Sudan. AMERICA: Bolivia, Brail, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela. ASIA: India. See records in database

TYPE SPECIMENS:
Isotype (NY00319232)

SYNONYMS:
Calonyction acanthocarpum Choisy
Ipomoea piurensis O’Donell
Ipomoea piurensis f. rosea O’Donell

An African species with an erect habit and densely hairy. First described by Choisy as Argyreia abyssinica and sometimes apparently recorded as Convolvulus echioides Hochst. ex Choisy, both names now considered synonyms. Choisy described the species from Ethiopia and Roberty (1952) succinctly recorded it “from Eastern Tropical Africa” (Afrique tropicale orientale), although it is not mentioned by Verdcourt (1963) in the Flora of Tropical East Africa. The specimens recorded in our database, i.e. the two isotypes and another collection possibly also studied by Choisy, are all from northern Ethiopia. GBIF also lists records from Cameroon, Chad and Senegal that need to be confirmed.

DESCRIPTION (from: Baker and Rendle, 1905): Stems stout, woody, hollow, erect, nearly 2 ft. long and 2 lin. thick at the base, densely hairy. Leaves ovate or the lower smaller ones more or less oblong, ascending, entire, acute or the lower obtuse, 1 1/4–3 in. long, 3/4–1 1/2 in. broad, greenish and hairy above, whitish and more densely hairy beneath; petiole very short. Flowers in dense heads from the axils of the upper leaves on ascending peduncles, 1–2 in. long, mixed with persistent lanceolate very hairy foliaceous bracts, reaching 1 1/4 in. long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, apex acuminate, the outermost nearly 8 lin. long by 2 1/2 lin. broad, the innermost 6 lin. long by 1 1/2 lin. broad, densely covered on the back with long yellowish hairs. Corolla campanulate-funnel-shaped, 1–1 1/3 in. long, and about as broad, tube and throat deep red-purple, limb yellow, silky outside. Fruit and seeds not seen.

COUNTRIES: Ethiopia. See records in database

PROTOLOGUE: Prodr. [A.P. Candolle] 9: 332 (1845) [Argyreia abyssinica, basyonym]

TYPE SPECIMENS:
W. Schimper, 351: Isotype (STU000310), Isotype (STU000309), Isotype (LG90028038), Isotype (MPU007057), Isotype (MPU015682), Isotype (GH135069), Isotype (M0184920), Isotype (M0184919), Isotype (M0109929), Isotype (M0109930), Isotype (US00664211), Isotype (S11-40062), Isotype (S11-40064), Isotype (HBG505597), Isotype (BR8884466), Isotype (BR8885500), Isotype (BR8251398), Isotype (LECB0000492), Isotype (LG90027932), Isotype (HOH009537), Isotype (HOH009539)
W. Schimper, 371: Isotype (E00193302)

SYNONYMS:
Argyreia abyssinica Choisy
Convolvulus echioides Hochst. ex Choisy

A species scattered in seasonally dry tropical forests below 1000 m in South America, most common in the Chiquitano dry forest of eastern Bolivia, around Guayaquil (Ecuador) and in northern Colombia and Venezuela. Previously known as Turbina abutiloides (Kunth) O’Donell, this formerly recognised genus is now treated as a synonym of Ipomoea.

Ipomoea abutiloides

DESCRIPTION: Liana climbing high over shrubs to 7 m, stems white-tomentose, especially when young, roots tuberous. Leaves petiolate, 3–10 × 3–11 cm, broadly ovate, base truncate to subcordate, apex retuse, rounded or obtuse, adaxially pubescent, abaxially grey-tomentose; petioles (1–)3–6(–10) cm, pubescent to tomentose. Inflorescence of axillary and terminal cymes, the later compound and often paniculate or racemose in form, sometimes distinctly leafy; peduncles 2–11 cm, tomentose; bracteoles 2–9 mm, linear, tomentose, soon caducous; short (c. 5 mm), secondary and tertiary peduncles often present; pedicels 5–25 mm, tomentose; calyx narrow and ±cylindrical, sepals subequal, 10–14 × 4–7 mm, oblong-obovate, obtuse to rounded, drying brown, glabrous or nearly so, inner c. 2 mm longer than outer, the margins broad and scarious; corolla 5–7 cm long, funnel-shaped, pink, pubescent in bud, glabrescent, limb 4–5 cm, weakly lobed. Capsules glabrous, ovoid, 14–17 × 6–7 mm; seeds reported as usually solitary, 9–10 mm long, minutely tomentellous.

PROTOLOGUE:  Gen. Hist. 4: 273. 1838

COUNTRIES: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela. See records in database

TYPE SPECIMENS:
Holotype (P)

SYNONYMS:
Convolvulus abutiloides Kunth.
Ipomoea abutiloides var. hartwegiana Kuntze
Ipomoea abutiloides var. kunthiana Kuntze
Ipomoea floribunda Moric.
Ipomoea floribunda var. blanchetii Meisn.
Rivea abutiloides (Kunth) Hallier
Turbina abutiloides (Kunth) O’Donell.

A liana endemic to Northern Australia, recorded in Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia states. According to Austin (1993), it occurs in Eucalyptus woodlands and open forests on sandy and skeletal soils, although Johnson (2012) noted this species is morphologically very variable and may contain several taxa. This species is part of a group of Australian endemic species nested in Ipomoea Clade A1, likely the result of long distance dispersal from the American continent followed by species diversification in Australia.

DESCRIPTION (from: Austin et al., 1993): Perennial vines; stems twining, woody, glabrous. Leaf blades broadly ovate, 7.5-12 cm long, 6-9 cm broad, basally cordate, the margins entire, apically acute to narrowly obtuse, emarginate, glabrous or with occasional trichomes on the midrib, the petiole 2-7 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, cymose, 1-5 flowered, often compound; peduncles 8-30 mm long. Flowers on pedicels 1.5-3 cm long, glabrous; sepals subequal, the outer two broadly ovate to orbicular, coriaceous, 8-15 cm long and broad, apex rounded, glabrous, very wrinkled at maturity, the inner broadly oblong of similar length but narrower; corolla funnelform, 6-10 cm long, pink with a darker throat, mid-petaline bands glabrous; stamens unequal, inserted 1.5-2 cm above the corolla base, the filaments 2.5-3.5 cm long, pubescent in the lower half, anthers oblong, 7-8 mm long; ovary 2-locular, ovoid, glabrous, the style 4-5 cm long, the stigma biglobose. Fruits capsular, globose to globose-ovoid, with a persistent style base, 1.2-1.5 cm long, brown; seeds 4 or fewer, 5-6 mm long, dark olive brown, loosely pubescent with longer trichomes on the margins.

COUNTRIES: Australia. See records in database.

PROTOLOGUE: Pdr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 485

TYPE SPECIMENS: Holotype (BM)

SYNONYMS:
Convolvulus abruptus (R.Br.) Spreng.

The genus Ipomoea currently includes c. 810 accepted species. This encyclopedia presents basic information on all of them, including links to the type collections and the protologue, a brief description, overall distribution, field photos when available and other relevant information. For the species in the American continent, the data presented here is based on our Ipomoea monograph published in 2020, and is more or less continuously updated as new information is generated. Species distribution data can also be obtained through the specimen collection database.